Perfect chess

Many people immediately assumed that chess would be solved: fully known, in all its pathways and combinations. They thought a fast electronic computer would play perfect chess, just as they thought it would make reliable long-term weather forecasts. Shannon made a rough calculation, however, and suggested that the number of possible chess games was more than 10 120—a number that dwarfs the age of the universe in nanoseconds. So computers cannot play chess by brute force; they must reason, as Shannon saw, along something like human lines.

James Gleick, The Information

Maybe see also this article on design studio culture; Brute Force Architecture.